Saturday, 2 June 2018

Horner syndrome, Horner’s syndrome, Claude-Bernard Horner syndrome, or oculosympathetic paresis

Horner syndrome «is a combination of symptoms that arises when a group of nerves known as the sympathetic trunk is damaged [1]». It «results from an interruption of the sympathetic nerve supply to the eye and is characterized by the classic triad of miosis (ie, constricted pupil [2]», by inactivation of the dilator muscle [1]), partial ptosis [2] (a weak, droopy eyelid, by inactivation of the superior tarsal muscle) [1], «loss of hemifacial sweating (ie, anhidrosis) [2]», «with apparent enophthalmos (inset eyeball) [1]». «The term Horner syndrome is commonly used in English-speaking countries, whereas the term Bernard-Horner syndrome is common in France [2]».
«The nerves of the sympathetic trunk arise from the spinal cord in the chest, and from there ascend to the neck and face. The nerves are part of the sympathetic nervous system, a division of the autonomic (or involuntary) nervous system [1].»
Bibliographic references:
[1] Horner's syndrome. Enwikipediaorg. 2018. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horner%27s_syndrome. Accessed June 2, 2018.
[2] Bardorf CM, Stavern GV, Garcia-Valenzuela E. Horner Syndrome: Overview, Anatomy, Pathophysiology. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. 2017. Available at: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1220091-overview. Accessed June 2, 2018.